【Good morning health / Dr. Zhang Jinjian and Dr. Cai Chonghuang】 Coffee and neurological diseases
The general public believes that drinking 200 mg of caffeine (about 2.5 cups of coffee) in one breath, or drinking no more than 400 mg of caffeine (5 cups) a day, will not harm the body, and it will affect the alertness of the brain nervous system and Healthy, focused attention can help, and can reduce the risk of depression, and enhance the effects of medications for headaches, among other things.
Long-term consumption of coffee or caffeine may prevent cognitive decline and reduce the risk of stroke, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, but may increase anxiety and disrupt sleep in some people.
In terms of epilepsy, the role of coffee is still controversial. Studies in animal models have found that short-term use of caffeine can lower the threshold of epilepsy and make seizures easier. On the contrary, long-term use of coffee/caffeine has been found in human studies. Reduces seizures and reduces brain damage in status epilepticus.
Caffeine alcohol (kahweol) can protect nerve cells from damage, for example, it can protect the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-hydroxydopamine; 6-OHDA) neurons related to Parkinson's disease from death. Studies have found that coffee beans can induce heme oxygenase-1 (heme oxygenase-1) through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PI3K) and p38/Nrf2 pathways, and through 6-hydroxy derivatization Oxidative stress (6-hydroxydopamine-derived oxidative stress) to protect dopamine neurons.
Coffee reduces relative risk of Parkinson's disease through multiple mechanisms
Parkinson's disease (Parkinson's disease) is a neurodegenerative disease with an incidence rate second only to Alzheimer's disease. The cause is still unknown, but it is related to the inability to produce enough dopamine due to the degeneration of brain cells in the substantia nigra of the brain.
Why do substantia nigra cells degenerate? It is not clear at present, and it is speculated that it may be related to genes, environment or life factors, such as abuse of antibiotics, heavy metal pollution and so on. Several recent studies have shown that drinking coffee can prevent Parkinson's disease.
60-80% of patients with Parkinson's disease have constipation problem, and it starts as early as 10-20 years before symptoms appear. In 2014, the team of the Department of Neurology of National Taiwan University Hospital analyzed 550,000 cases of Parkinson's disease in the national health insurance database, and once again confirmed that people with constipation have a much higher probability of developing Parkinson's disease in the future than ordinary people, and the more severe the constipation , the higher the probability.
((How many cups of coffee should you drink to reduce the risk of dementia? The answer is on the next page))
※ This article is MindOcean Forwarded from ptt.cc Update time: 2022-02-08 20:55:11
authormicheal59 (Pohan) title[新聞] You can “measure the breast size” with your fingers 4 hands = D cup timeMon Feb 7 23:09:57 2022
Please put the note at the end. Offenders will delete the news article.
1. Media source: ETtoday News Cloud
2. Reporter’s signature: Reporter Shi Yixuan/comprehensive report
3. Full news headline: You can “measure the breast size” with your fingers. 4 hands = D cup!She undressed and measured: really accurate
4. Complete news content:
Girls want to know the breast cup size, most of them will use a soft ruler to measure and convert, measure the upper bust and lower bust, and then convert it The size of the cup, but some netizens shared a simple, fast and accurate measurement method, “Measure with your finger”, one finger The head represents a cup, first lean the body forward 45 degrees, place the hand under the chest in a gesture of 4, and see that the point of the nipple is vertically aligned With any finger, you can know how many cups it is.
The original PO posted on Dcard, the roommate found a super-accurate method for measuring cups, after taking off the underwear, the body leaned forward 45 degrees snap off the thumb, stick the 4 fingers together and hold the lower edge of the chest, observe which finger the nipple falls to when it is vertical “One finger represents a cup, if one hand is not enough, you can put two hands side by side, so that 8 fingers energy to H”.
The original PO said that the roommates’ cups range from C to F, and they are all accurate in measurement, with an error of no more than one finger. “However, we Roommates are all 34-36 in the lower circumference. I am not sure if the measurement is accurate if the measurement is below 32 and above 38. I wonder if everyone can measure it accurately? “
▲Lean your body forward and measure with your fingers. (Picture / flip from Dcard)
As soon as the post came out, many people took measurements, “36D, really four fingers”, “32E, really five fingers”, “I am 34 D, rushing to the mirror in an instant and looking at it is really 4 fingers, so amazing, but the most amazing thing is to find this method, how is this method? Discovered”, “36G, just asked my boyfriend to be sure”, “I’m 34D! About 4 and a half fingers! Super cool”, “Roommate is too strong I have about 7 to 8 fingers, and I usually wear G or H.”
However, there are also situations where “the measured amount is larger than the actual value”, “I measured five, but only C”, “I have 4 fingers but can’t 32C”, “36D, 6 fingers, is this a new type of happy cup”, “I measure it with 4 fingers, but I only have 32B”, “Usually Big C and small D, the measurement is 7 fingers, the difference is almost doubled, do you want to buy new underwear”, “I measure it like a D cup, but I wear it B”.
[Good morning health / Chen Yuwen]According to the National Institute on Aging (NIA) report, if the elderly only consume 500 calories for 1-2 days a week, it can promote the secretion of a chemical molecule in the brain , a molecule that stimulates nerve growth and helps fight brain degenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.
The research team found that when the human body is starving, there are two kinds of chemical communication molecules in the brain will increase, and these chemical molecules will stimulate the brain nerves to start a large number of proliferation. “Just like exercise puts stress on the muscles, starvation puts a slight strain on the brain, and this stress is good for the brain as a whole.” This is Mark Mattson, director of the Neuroscience Research Unit at the Institute for Aging. Argument presented by professor at American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) meeting.
In fact, some previous studies have supported the argument that dieting is for health. Some studies have found that proper dieting can increase the lifespan of mice by 40%, and similar effects also occur in humans. But this study took it a step further. They found that the reason why dieting prolongs life is to delay the onset of diseases, such as stroke.
During this period of fasting, how should I eat? Mattson said, A daily intake of 500 calories is enough, which is about a few servings of vegetables plus tea,He said:" Not eating at all is not the best way, instead fasting intermittently, which means that you hardly eat anything in a short period of time, and do not particularly regulate yourself at other times. In this way, Mattson emphasizes, finding the best fasting "time point" becomes very important throughout the regimen.
hunger=crisis The potential of the brain is stimulated
The research team also put forward an evolutionary point of view: "When food became scarce, the ancestors of human beings had to rack their brains to find food to survive. They had to think hard about where there might be food, and at the same time tried every means to protect themselves from being eaten by others. Be eaten by wild animals.” However, if there are elderly people suffering from chronic diseases or serious diseases in the family, it is still necessary to go to the hospital for nutritional consultation to learn how to eat the best. After all, everyone's physical condition and disease condition are different. Before fully grasping the information, don't take action rashly.
Brushing our teeth sounds simple. Since childhood, we have been taught to brush our teeth every day and after three meals, otherwise we will get tooth decay, bad breath, periodontal disease, and rotten teeth, and we have to clean our teeth once every six months to ensure dental health. Theoretically, brushing is something we should do every day, but according to a survey by the National Health Service, as many as 99.2% of adults in Taiwan have periodontal problems. This figure represents at least several meanings.
Many people do not brush their teeth at the right time
Many people do not brush their teeth the right way
Many people are not clear about the choice of toothbrush and toothpaste
There is never a shortage of news about brushing. Some people say that you can’t brush your teeth immediately after drinking acid. Is it true? I have heard that human beings do not need toothpaste at all, and that a toothbrush is enough? In order to answer these questions, the two dentist partners of the MedPartner team will explain in detail what you need to know about brushing your teeth through this article.
Without further ado, let’s get to the lesson!
What are you brushing? The focus is on removing plaque!
According to the National Health Bureau, 75% of the nationals brush their teeth at least twice a day, but as many as 99% of them have periodontal disease of varying severity, and the rate of tooth decay in children under 6 years old is as high as 80%. The answer is revealed: you can’t brush your teeth.
I know you’re thinking, “You can’t brush your teeth? I brush my teeth every day! You need to teach me how to do that?” But do you really know how to brush your teeth properly? Ever since you were a kid, like studying English math, there was a textbook telling you how to brush? Many people do brush their teeth, but they really get the point wrong and do it the wrong way.
Brush your teeth to get rid of plaque
Brushing your teeth is not just a matter of taking a brush to your mouth and snoring it around. What is plaque? You can think of it as the biofilm in your mouth. Okay, the next question is, what is biofilm?
Biofilm is a combination of microorganisms and organic matter on a hard surface. You can think of it as a colony of bacteria on the surface of your teeth.
The acid produced by the metabolism of the bacteria in plaque can erode the enamel on the surface of the teeth. Although enamel is the hardest part of the body, it does not have good resistance to acid, and the accumulated damage will cause tooth decay and cavities.
Plaque is not only on the teeth, but also in the gingival sulcus, which can lead to inflammation, resulting in the gradual destruction of the surrounding tissues and the loss of the alveolar bone that supports the teeth, and without the foundation to support the teeth, the teeth will gradually fall off. This is the periodontal disease that dentists are most concerned about.
Therefore, when cleaning, special attention should be paid to areas where plaque is likely to accumulate, such as
Side of the teeth The area where the teeth and gums meet Grooves and depressions on the teeth Rougher surfaces on the teeth
The picture above is colored with plaque revealer to show the dead spots that are easily created by regular cleaning. The colored part is the plaque.
The most effective way to get rid of plaque is by physical force, such as brushing with bristles or flossing. Using mouthwash alone may only kill the bacteria on the surface of the plaque, but it does not completely remove the tribe of bacteria.
Many mouthwash manufacturers will say that they can kill a certain percentage of bacteria, but what they don’t tell you is that the bacteria they can kill are only on the surface of the plaque, as long as the plaque is not really removed, the bacteria will continue to grow next.
Brush your teeth without implementation, beware of tartar
If you brush your teeth properly, you are less likely to leave plaque behind. However, as I said earlier, too many people do not brush their teeth properly and the plaque left behind will calcify and form tartar.
When tartar is formed, it is difficult to remove it with a toothbrush or dental floss. The rough surface of the tartar will allow bacteria to attach better and cause more plaque to accumulate, resulting in a more serious inflammatory reaction. This is why you need to go to the dentist every six months for a dental cleaning and oral examination!
Seeing this, you should make up your mind to brush your teeth properly (?) But if you want to be good at what you do, you have to be good at what you do, so you should want to go to a weapon store and buy a prop, right? Then how to choose a toothbrush and toothpaste?
How to choose a toothbrush? Toothpaste and toothbrush selection principles
Before brushing your teeth, we must have a suitable toothbrush, there is a wide range of toothbrushes in the market, all kinds of shapes and colors, but in fact, you only need to grasp the following important principles for toothbrush selection.
How to choose a toothbrush
1.Soft bristles: Using a toothbrush with too hard bristles will cause damage to your teeth and gums, and it is also easy to brush your teeth with improper force, which can lead to problems such as sensitive teeth.
2.Small head: A toothbrush with too large a head will have many dead ends when brushing, especially when brushing large molars and other locations because the brush head is stuck in soft tissue causing unclean brushing
3.Upright bristles: Upright bristles allow the bristles to clean the surface of the teeth efficiently when the hand is moving. Don’t make the bristles too dense: too dense bristles tend to get stuck in food residue, and the toothbrush itself is not easy to clean and can easily become a breeding ground for bacteria.
Also remind, when the toothbrush is used for a period of time, the bristles will split, it is time to replace the toothbrush, keep the bristles upright in order to efficiently and do not hurt the gums to brush your teeth oh.
The role of toothpaste in toothbrushing
The main ingredients of most toothpastes are similar, but there are so many different kinds of toothpastes on the market because of the different kinds of auxiliary properties, the addition of different ingredients, and the respective brands and packaging.
The ingredients in toothpaste help remove surface stains and help prevent tooth decay through fluoride. All toothpastes certified by the American Dental Asscociation contain fluoride, which has the ability to prevent tooth decay. When it comes to toothpaste selection, choose toothpaste with different auxiliary properties depending on your needs, such as anti-sensitivity or periodontal anti-inflammatory.
For most people, the most effective way to prevent tooth decay is to use toothpaste with fluoride and the correct brushing method.
When is the right time to brush teeth? Can’t I brush after eating something sour?
The next question that we are most concerned about is when is the right time to brush our teeth?
The most commonly heard practice is “Brush 333”, which suggests brushing after three meals and before going to bed, and brushing within 3 minutes after meals, and brushing for at least 3 minutes each time.
However, the American Dental Association (ADA) offers a different recommendation on how often to brush after meals. The main reason is that the enamel of the teeth is very acidic and if you brush your teeth immediately after eating acidic foods, these acids may cause more wear to the teeth.
This seems to be different from brushing 333. So what can we do? Let’s take a serious look at it together.
The interval between brushing and eating acid has different effects on enamel and ivory
In a 2001 and 2004 German study on brushing after acid exposure (Ref. 2.3), teeth were divided into six groups and each group was first soaked in sprite light (Sprite, pH 2.9) for 90 seconds, and then immediately, for 10 minutes, for 20 minutes, for 30 minutes, and for 60 minutes. The results showed that brushing after 60 minutes caused the least damage in the group with brushing, but even in the group with brushing after 60 minutes, the damage to tooth enamel was significantly higher than that in the group without brushing.
In 2004, a similar experiment was conducted on the dentin (also known as ivory, the inner layer of enamel), which was also divided into six groups and treated with sprite light for 90 seconds.
Therefore, to summarize, the timing of brushing is basically after three meals and before bedtime, and at least 3 minutes per brushing. However, there is a special situation, if you have eaten or drank a particularly acidic food or drink, do not brush your teeth immediately, you can wait for a period of time before brushing, during which you can rinse your mouth with water or chew sugar-free gum to reduce the acidity on your teeth.
But speaking of which, there is still a problem! It’s really hard to brush your teeth 333 times, so if you can’t do it, is there a compromise? For dentists, instead of giving you a requirement that you can’t do, it’s better to give a standard that you can do, and it’s better to brush than not brush at all (sigh). The American Dental Association’s most basic requirement for brushing is.
Brush your teeth at least twice a day. The American Dental Association does not recommend a specific time. On balance, we usually recommend once in the morning and once in the evening, after breakfast and before bedtime. Thorough brushing at least two times will get rid of most plaque.
Floss properly at least once a day. Flossing removes food debris and plaque from between your teeth, which your toothbrush can’t handle.