【Good Morning Health / Zhang Jinjian, Dr. Cai Chonghuang】 Coffee and neurological diseases
The general public thinks that drinking 200 mg of caffeine (about 2.5 cups of coffee) in one breath, or drinking no more than 400 mg of caffeine (5 cups) a day, is not harmful to the body, and has no effect on the alertness of the brain and nervous system. Health, concentration can help, and can reduce the risk of depression, as well as strengthening the effect of medication on headaches.
Long-term use of coffee or caffeine may prevent cognitive decline and reduce the risk of stroke, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease, but may increase anxiety and disrupt sleep in some people.
In terms of epilepsy, the role of coffee is still controversial. In animal model studies, it was found that short-term use of caffeine will reduce the threshold of epilepsy and make seizures easier. On the contrary, in human studies, long-term use of coffee/caffeine has been found to reduce the risk of seizures. Reduces seizures and reduces brain damage in status epilepticus.
Kahweol protects nerve cells from damage, such as the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a neurotoxin that causes Parkinson's disease. Studies have found that cafestol can induce heme oxygenase-1 (heme oxygenase-1) via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and p38/Nrf2 pathways, and is derived from 6-hydroxyl 6-hydroxydopamine-derived oxidative stress to protect dopamine neurons.
Coffee reduces relative risk of Parkinson's disease through multiple mechanisms
Parkinson's disease (Parkinson's disease) is a neurodegenerative disease with an incidence second only to Alzheimer's disease. The cause is still unknown, but it is related to the degeneration of brain cells in the substantia nigra, which cannot produce enough dopamine (dopamine).
Why do substantia nigra cells degenerate? It is still unclear, and it is speculated that it may be related to genetic, environmental or life factors, such as the abuse of antibiotics, heavy metal pollution, etc. Several recent studies have shown that drinking coffee can actually prevent Parkinson's disease.
60 to 80% of people with Parkinson's disease have constipation problems that begin 10 to 20 years before symptoms appear. In 2014, a team from the Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital analyzed 550,000 Parkinson's disease cases in the health insurance database, and it was once again confirmed that people with constipation problems have a much higher chance of developing Parkinson's disease in the future than the general population, and the more severe the constipation, , the higher the probability.
((How many cups of coffee should I drink to reduce the risk of dementia? The answer is on the next page))
[Good Morning Health/Chen Yuwen]According to a report by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) of the US National Institutes of Health, if the elderly consume only 500 calories 1-2 days a week, they can promote the secretion of a chemical molecule in the brain , a molecule that stimulates nerve growth and helps fight degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.
The research team found that when the human body is starving, there are two types of chemical communication molecules in the brain that increase, and these chemical molecules stimulate the nerves in the brain to start proliferating. “Just as exercise puts pressure on the muscles, there is a mild stress on the brain when you starve, and that stress is good for the brain as a whole.” This is Mark Mattson, director of the Neuroscience Laboratory at the Aging Institute. Arguments presented by professors at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) meeting.
In fact, some previous studies have supported the argument of dieting for health. One study found that proper dieting can increase the lifespan of mice by 40%, and a similar effect occurs in humans. But this study went a step further, finding that the reason why dieting increases lifespan is to delay the onset of diseases, such as strokes.
How should you eat during this period of fasting? Mattson said, 500 calories a day is enough, about a few servings of vegetables plus tea,He said:" Not eating at all is not the best approach, but intermittent fasting should be, which means that you hardly eat anything in a short period of time, and do not particularly regulate yourself at other times. In doing so, Mattson emphasizes, finding the best "time point" for fasting becomes very important throughout the course of treatment.
hunger=crisis Brain potential stimulated
The research team also put forward an evolutionary point of view: "When food became scarce, the ancestors of mankind had to rack their brains to find food to survive, they had to think hard about where there might be food, and at the same time did everything possible to protect themselves from others. The beasts eat it." However, if there are elderly people with chronic or serious illnesses at home, it is still necessary to go to the hospital for nutritional consultation to learn how to eat the best. After all, everyone’s physical condition and medical condition are different, so don’t take action rashly until you have enough information.
※ This article is MindOcean Forwarded from ptt.cc Update time: 2022-02-08 20:55:11
authormicheal59 (Pohan) title[新聞] You can “measure the size of your breasts” with your fingers. 4 hands = D cup timeMon Feb 7 23:09:57 2022
Remarks, please put the news article of the offender at the end and delete it
1. Media source: ETtoday News Cloud
2. Reporter’s signature: Reporter Shi Yiyu/Comprehensive report
3. Full news headlines: You can “measure the size of your breasts” with your fingers. 4 hands = D cup!Her undressing test: really accurate
4. Complete news content:
Girls want to know the breast cup, most of them will use a soft ruler to measure and convert, measure the upper bust and lower bust, you can convert it Cup size, but some netizens shared a simple, fast and accurate measurement method, “measure with your finger”, one finger The head represents a cup, first tilt the body forward 45 degrees, place your hand under the chest with a gesture of 4, and look at the nipples vertically to the point Which finger you know how many cups it is.
The original PO posted on Dcard, and the roommate found a method to measure the cups that is super accurate. After taking off the underwear, the body leans forward 45 degrees. Buckle the thumb, stick the 4 fingers together and hold the lower edge of the chest, observe which finger the nipple falls to after the nipple is vertical Head, “One finger represents one cup, if one hand is not enough, you can put both hands side by side, so that there are 8 fingers energy to H”.
The original PO said that the cups of the roommates are C ~ F, and the measurement is accurate, the error is no more than one finger, “But we Roommates have a lower circumference of 34 to 36. I am not sure if it is accurate to measure below 32 and above 38. I am curious if it is accurate? “
▲ Lean your body forward and measure with your fingers. (Picture / Retrieved from Dcard)
As soon as the post came out, many people started to measure, “36D, really four fingers”, “32E, really five fingers”, “I 34 D, rushing to the mirror in an instant is really 4 fingers, so amazing, but the most amazing thing is that you can find this method, how is this method? I found it”, “36G, I just asked my boyfriend to measure accurately”, “I’m 34D! About 4 and a half fingers! Super cool”, “The roommate is too strong I have almost 7 to 8 fingers, and I usually wear G or H.”
However, there are also netizens who “measured more than the actual size”, “I measured five, but only C”, “I have four fingers but
32C”, “36D, 6 fingers, is this the new happy cup”, “I measure 4 fingers, but I only have 32B”, “Usually Big C, small D, measuring 7 fingers, almost double the difference, are you going to buy new underwear?”, “I measure D cups like this, but I wear B”.
Brushing our teeth sounds simple. Since childhood, we have been taught to brush our teeth every day and after three meals, otherwise we will get tooth decay, bad breath, periodontal disease, and rotten teeth, and we have to clean our teeth once every six months to ensure dental health. Theoretically, brushing is something we should do every day, but according to a survey by the National Health Service, as many as 99.2% of adults in Taiwan have periodontal problems. This figure represents at least several meanings.
Many people do not brush their teeth at the right time
Many people do not brush their teeth the right way
Many people are not clear about the choice of toothbrush and toothpaste
There is never a shortage of news about brushing. Some people say that you can’t brush your teeth immediately after drinking acid. Is it true? I have heard that human beings do not need toothpaste at all, and that a toothbrush is enough? In order to answer these questions, the two dentist partners of the MedPartner team will explain in detail what you need to know about brushing your teeth through this article.
Without further ado, let’s get to the lesson!
What are you brushing? The focus is on removing plaque!
According to the National Health Bureau, 75% of the nationals brush their teeth at least twice a day, but as many as 99% of them have periodontal disease of varying severity, and the rate of tooth decay in children under 6 years old is as high as 80%. The answer is revealed: you can’t brush your teeth.
I know you’re thinking, “You can’t brush your teeth? I brush my teeth every day! You need to teach me how to do that?” But do you really know how to brush your teeth properly? Ever since you were a kid, like studying English math, there was a textbook telling you how to brush? Many people do brush their teeth, but they really get the point wrong and do it the wrong way.
Brush your teeth to get rid of plaque
Brushing your teeth is not just a matter of taking a brush to your mouth and snoring it around. What is plaque? You can think of it as the biofilm in your mouth. Okay, the next question is, what is biofilm?
Biofilm is a combination of microorganisms and organic matter on a hard surface. You can think of it as a colony of bacteria on the surface of your teeth.
The acid produced by the metabolism of the bacteria in plaque can erode the enamel on the surface of the teeth. Although enamel is the hardest part of the body, it does not have good resistance to acid, and the accumulated damage will cause tooth decay and cavities.
Plaque is not only on the teeth, but also in the gingival sulcus, which can lead to inflammation, resulting in the gradual destruction of the surrounding tissues and the loss of the alveolar bone that supports the teeth, and without the foundation to support the teeth, the teeth will gradually fall off. This is the periodontal disease that dentists are most concerned about.
Therefore, when cleaning, special attention should be paid to areas where plaque is likely to accumulate, such as
Side of the teeth The area where the teeth and gums meet Grooves and depressions on the teeth Rougher surfaces on the teeth
The picture above is colored with plaque revealer to show the dead spots that are easily created by regular cleaning. The colored part is the plaque.
The most effective way to get rid of plaque is by physical force, such as brushing with bristles or flossing. Using mouthwash alone may only kill the bacteria on the surface of the plaque, but it does not completely remove the tribe of bacteria.
Many mouthwash manufacturers will say that they can kill a certain percentage of bacteria, but what they don’t tell you is that the bacteria they can kill are only on the surface of the plaque, as long as the plaque is not really removed, the bacteria will continue to grow next.
Brush your teeth without implementation, beware of tartar
If you brush your teeth properly, you are less likely to leave plaque behind. However, as I said earlier, too many people do not brush their teeth properly and the plaque left behind will calcify and form tartar.
When tartar is formed, it is difficult to remove it with a toothbrush or dental floss. The rough surface of the tartar will allow bacteria to attach better and cause more plaque to accumulate, resulting in a more serious inflammatory reaction. This is why you need to go to the dentist every six months for a dental cleaning and oral examination!
Seeing this, you should make up your mind to brush your teeth properly (?) But if you want to be good at what you do, you have to be good at what you do, so you should want to go to a weapon store and buy a prop, right? Then how to choose a toothbrush and toothpaste?
How to choose a toothbrush? Toothpaste and toothbrush selection principles
Before brushing your teeth, we must have a suitable toothbrush, there is a wide range of toothbrushes in the market, all kinds of shapes and colors, but in fact, you only need to grasp the following important principles for toothbrush selection.
How to choose a toothbrush
1.Soft bristles: Using a toothbrush with too hard bristles will cause damage to your teeth and gums, and it is also easy to brush your teeth with improper force, which can lead to problems such as sensitive teeth.
2.Small head: A toothbrush with too large a head will have many dead ends when brushing, especially when brushing large molars and other locations because the brush head is stuck in soft tissue causing unclean brushing
3.Upright bristles: Upright bristles allow the bristles to clean the surface of the teeth efficiently when the hand is moving. Don’t make the bristles too dense: too dense bristles tend to get stuck in food residue, and the toothbrush itself is not easy to clean and can easily become a breeding ground for bacteria.
Also remind, when the toothbrush is used for a period of time, the bristles will split, it is time to replace the toothbrush, keep the bristles upright in order to efficiently and do not hurt the gums to brush your teeth oh.
The role of toothpaste in toothbrushing
The main ingredients of most toothpastes are similar, but there are so many different kinds of toothpastes on the market because of the different kinds of auxiliary properties, the addition of different ingredients, and the respective brands and packaging.
The ingredients in toothpaste help remove surface stains and help prevent tooth decay through fluoride. All toothpastes certified by the American Dental Asscociation contain fluoride, which has the ability to prevent tooth decay. When it comes to toothpaste selection, choose toothpaste with different auxiliary properties depending on your needs, such as anti-sensitivity or periodontal anti-inflammatory.
For most people, the most effective way to prevent tooth decay is to use toothpaste with fluoride and the correct brushing method.
When is the right time to brush teeth? Can’t I brush after eating something sour?
The next question that we are most concerned about is when is the right time to brush our teeth?
The most commonly heard practice is “Brush 333”, which suggests brushing after three meals and before going to bed, and brushing within 3 minutes after meals, and brushing for at least 3 minutes each time.
However, the American Dental Association (ADA) offers a different recommendation on how often to brush after meals. The main reason is that the enamel of the teeth is very acidic and if you brush your teeth immediately after eating acidic foods, these acids may cause more wear to the teeth.
This seems to be different from brushing 333. So what can we do? Let’s take a serious look at it together.
The interval between brushing and eating acid has different effects on enamel and ivory
In a 2001 and 2004 German study on brushing after acid exposure (Ref. 2.3), teeth were divided into six groups and each group was first soaked in sprite light (Sprite, pH 2.9) for 90 seconds, and then immediately, for 10 minutes, for 20 minutes, for 30 minutes, and for 60 minutes. The results showed that brushing after 60 minutes caused the least damage in the group with brushing, but even in the group with brushing after 60 minutes, the damage to tooth enamel was significantly higher than that in the group without brushing.
In 2004, a similar experiment was conducted on the dentin (also known as ivory, the inner layer of enamel), which was also divided into six groups and treated with sprite light for 90 seconds.
Therefore, to summarize, the timing of brushing is basically after three meals and before bedtime, and at least 3 minutes per brushing. However, there is a special situation, if you have eaten or drank a particularly acidic food or drink, do not brush your teeth immediately, you can wait for a period of time before brushing, during which you can rinse your mouth with water or chew sugar-free gum to reduce the acidity on your teeth.
But speaking of which, there is still a problem! It’s really hard to brush your teeth 333 times, so if you can’t do it, is there a compromise? For dentists, instead of giving you a requirement that you can’t do, it’s better to give a standard that you can do, and it’s better to brush than not brush at all (sigh). The American Dental Association’s most basic requirement for brushing is.
Brush your teeth at least twice a day. The American Dental Association does not recommend a specific time. On balance, we usually recommend once in the morning and once in the evening, after breakfast and before bedtime. Thorough brushing at least two times will get rid of most plaque.
Floss properly at least once a day. Flossing removes food debris and plaque from between your teeth, which your toothbrush can’t handle.
A new study recently found that a cup of coffee in the morning not only lifts the spirits, but also protects against Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Researchers at the Dolan-Doklopil Brain Institute found that phenylindanes, a chemical breakdown product of chlorogenic acid lactones in roasted coffee, inhibits the growth of Tau proteins and beta amyloid plaques, two proteins associated with increased risk of two diseases in the brain.
Regular Caffeine Intake May Help Prevent Dementia
According to Alzheimer’s and Dementia Weekly, Dr. Donald Weaver, co-director of the Crumbill Brain Institute, noted that coffee consumption appears to be associated with a reduced risk of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, and they want to investigate what the cause is, what compounds are involved, and how it affects age-related cognitive decline.
Other studies have found that regular caffeine intake may help prevent dementia, AARP said. A study published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, which looked at people aged 65 to 84, showed that people who drank one to two cups of coffee a day were less likely to have mild cognitive impairment than those who never drank coffee. The American Association of Retired Persons pointed out that similar studies have found that coffee can even prevent Parkinson’s disease.
Dark-roasted coffee is more protective than light-roasted coffee
However, Canadian researchers have ruled out caffeine as a source of brain protection because even decaffeinated roasted coffee is beneficial in preventing dementia. The team determined that phenyl lindane, obtained through roasted coffee, is a beneficial compound that inhibits the aggregation of Tau and beta amyloid proteins in the brain associated with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.
The researchers also found that dark-roasted coffee, which contains more phenyl lindane, was more protective than light-roasted coffee, and the next step in the study is to measure how these compounds get into the bloodstream and cross the blood-brain barrier, and the good news is that phenyl lindane is a natural compound that has medicinal advantages over synthetic products. Dr. Weaver said that before coffee can be used to treat Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s, more research is needed.